Number System Problems

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Number System Aptitude

In Decimal number system, there are ten symbols namely 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9 called digits. A number is denoted by group of these digits called as numerals.

Face value of a digit in a numeral is value of the digit itself. For example in 321, face value of 1 is 1, face value of 2 is 2 and face value of 3 is 3.

number system aptitude

Types Of Number

Natural Number: Numbers used in counting are termed as natural numbers. Example N={ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ....}

Whole Number: Natural numbers with 0 are termed as whole number. Example W={0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ......}

Prime number: A number which is not divisible by other numbers except the number itself and 1 is termed as prime number. Example 19 is a prime number because it is not divisible by other than 1 and 19

Composite Numbers: Numbers other than one which are not prime are termed as Composite numbers. Example 4, 6, 8, 9, 12

Even Numbers: Numbers which are divisible by 2 ae termed as even numbers. Example 2, 4, 6, 8, 10

Odd Numbers: The number which is not divisible by 2 are termed as odd numbers. Example 3, 7, 9, 11

Consecutive numbers: Numbers increasing by one are termed as consecutive numbers. Example 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Integers: The set of numbers which consists of Negative numbers and whole numbers is known as Integers. ExampleI= { ....-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4..... }

Rational Numbers: The numbers which can be written in the form P / Q , where P and Q are integers and Q not equal to zero is termed as Rational Numbers. Example (1/2), (3/7), (7/11)

Irrational Numbers: The numbers which can not be written in P / Q form are termed as Irrational Numbers 22

Real Numbers: Real number consists of both rational as well as irrational numbers.

Divisible Properties

  • Divisibility by 2 - A number is divisible by 2 if its unit digit is 0,2,4,6 or 8.
  • Divisibility by 3 - A number is divisible by 3 if sum of its digits is completely divisible by 3.
  • Divisibility by 4 - A number is divisible by 4 if number formed using its last two digits is completely divisible by 4.
  • Divisibility by 5 - A number is divisible by 5 if its unit digit is 0 or 5.
  • Divisibility by 6 - A number is divisible by 6 if the number is divisible by both 2 and 3.
  • Divisibility by 8 - A number is divisible by 8 if number formed using its last three digits is completely divisible by 8.
  • Divisibility by 9 - A number is divisible by 9 if sum of its digits is completely divisible by 9.
  • Divisibility by 10 - A number is divisible by 10 if its unit digit is 0.
  • Divisibility by 11 - A number is divisible by 11 if difference between sum of digits at odd places and sum of digits at even places is either 0 or is divisible by 11.

Tips on Division

  • If a number n is divisible by two co-primes numbers a, b then n is divisible by ab.
  • (a-b) always divides (an - bn) if n is a natural number.
  • (a+b) always divides (an - bn) if n is an even number.
  • (a+b) always divides (an + bn) if n is an odd number.

Solution



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