Central Processing Unit

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What is Central Processing Unit

The CPU processes instructions it receives in the process of decoding data. In processing this data, the CPU performs four basic steps;

components of cpu

Fetch: Each instruction is stored in memory and has its own address. The processor takes this address number from the program counter, which is responsible for tracking which instructions the CPU should execute next.

Decode: All programs to be executed are translated to into Assembly instructions. Assembly code must be decoded into binary instructions, which are understandable to your CPU. This step is called decoding.

Execute: While executing instructions the CPU can do one of three things: Do calculations with its ALU, move data from one memory location to another, or jump to a different address.

Store: The CPU must give feedback after executing an instruction.

Central processing unit carries out all important functions of a computer. It receives instructions from both the hardware and active software and produces output accordingly. Generally, a CPU has three components they are;

  • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
  • Control Unit
  • Memory or Storage Unit

Memory: It is called Random access memory (RAM). It temporarily stores data, programs and intermediate and final results of processing.

Control Unit: It controls and coordinates the functioning of all parts of computer. It does not involve in processing and storing data.

ALU: ALU is that portion of CPU hardware which performs the arithmetical and logical operations on binary data. Arithmetic functions include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Logical functions mainly include selecting, comparing and merging the data.


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