Components of Computer Network


Computer Network Architecture Computer Networking

Components of Computer Network

Computer networks share common devices, functions, and features including servers, clients, transmission media, shared data, shared printers and other hardware and software resources, network interface card(NIC), local operating system(LOS), and the network operating system (NOS).

A computer network is build up from several components. These components together makes it possible to transfer data from one device to another and makes smooth communication between two different devices.

Computer network components are the major parts which are needed to install the software. Some important network components are NIC, switch, cable, hub, router, and modem. Depending on the type of network that we need to install, some network components can also be removed. For example, the wireless network does not require a cable. Following are the major components required to install a network;

  • NIC
  • Hub
  • Switch
  • Router
  • Modem
  • Server
  • Client
  • Resorces
  • Cables and Connectors

NIC: NIC stands for network interface card. NIC is a hardware component used to connect a computer with another computer onto a network. It can support a transfer rate of 10,100 to 1000 Mb/s. The MAC address or physical address is encoded on the network card chip which is assigned by the IEEE to identify a network card uniquely. The MAC address is stored in the PROM (Programmable read-only memory).

Types of NIC

There are two types of NIC they are; Wired NIC and Wireless NIC

Wired NIC: The Wired NIC is present inside the motherboard. Cables and connectors are used with wired NIC to transfer data.

Wireless NIC: The wireless NIC contains the antenna to obtain the connection over the wireless network. For example, laptop computer contains the wireless NIC.

Server: server is a computer that provides share resources to network user. Servers are computers that runs operating system and hold data that can be shared over a computer network.

Clients: Clients is a computer that access shared network resources provide by a server. A client is a computer that is connected to other computers in the network and can receive data sent by other computers.

Transmission Media: All computers in a computer network are connected with each other through a transmission media such as wires, optical fibre cables, coaxial cables etc.

NIC (Network Interface card): Each system or computer in a computer network must have a card called network interface card (NIC). The main purpose of NIC is to format the data, send the data and receive the data at the receiving node.

Hub: Hub acts as a device that connects all the computer in a network to each other. Any request that comes from a client computer first received by Hub and then hub transmit this request over a network so that the correct server receives and respond to it.

Switch: Switch is similar to hub however instead of broadcasting a incoming data request it uses the physical device address in the incoming request to transfer the request to correct server computer.

Router: Router joins multiple computer networks to each other. For example lets say a company runs 100 computers over a local area network(LAN) and another company runs another LAN of 150 computers. These both LANs can be connected with each other through a internet connection which is provided by the router.

what is router

Media: the way in which computers are connected.

Resources: Files, printers , or others item to be used by network users.

LAN cable: A wire that is used to connect more than one computers or other devices such as printers and scanner to each other.

Computer Network Architecture Computer Networking


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